“Green” energy: prospection
Nowadays the energy modernization and transition to a new engineering model including process datum update, production efficiency growth and life and living environment improvement take place. The key direction of power modernization is shaping of a “green” energy.
Generally “green” energy is a solution in energy and power supply field allowing decrease a greenhouse gas emission. Through this lens efficiency growth of fossil fuel usage to produce energy, power sources transition to types of oil with less carbon-content, new power-saving technologies adaptation as well as RPS development are referred.
Nowadays the “green” sector is not popular in world economy yet, but it is spreading notably. First of all it is determined by the priority of fossil oil import countries energy preparedness. Average growth according to HSBC is 11% per annum.
However the “green” energy development seems to be promising which is notably connected to technologic progress and to alternative power growth mainly. By the year 2020 the world market of “green” (low-carbon) energy will increase thrice – up to 2,2trln dollars per year. At the same time RPS market will increase 8,6% per year approximately and by the year 2020 it will reach 1 trln dollars.
Almost all EU countries developed new “green” measures in power production, public transport and infrastructure development, ecocities construction as well as scrappage of motor vehicles system development.
Now paste of investment growth in “green” energy in Europe and USA being considered as one of the promising fields of “green” economy surpass other ones. A high rate is kept because of developed countries investments growth, where the ones focused on RPS development increased for the last seven years from 52 bln dollars in 2004 to 260 bln dollars in 2011.
Thus, the “green” technologies support including RPS became an important reflation tool. “The green” bank is created in USA with 1 bln dollars registered capital which will specialize in environmentally clean power energy development project lending. South Korea having chosen a “green” growth concept as a national strategy gives attention to “green” industry, energy engineering and investments, “green” means of transportation, alternative fresh water supply, recycling technologies, parks development, within city rivers arrangement.
The RPS represents a growing market with annual turn more than 50 bln euro having a strong multiplicative effect in education, science and industry.
Future upgrade of renewable wind, solar and hydraulic power industries will help to replace environmentally unsafe and inefficient productions. In 2012 the total volume of electricity produced with the help of solar energy can be compared to the volume produced by 12 nuclear generating plants. According to European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) renewable sources will provide 35% of world power consumption in 2030.
By the year 2050 USA plans to reduce the emissions to 80%; with the help of solar plants 65% of consuming energy will be produced and 35% of heat. The construction of power efficient buildings is planned in Mexico, the reduction of carbon emission half as many by 2050 is considered, household promotion program is initiated to replace old labor-saving devices with new ones but with higher power efficiency.
“Green” philosophy becomes popular in Kazakhstan as well. As part of Kyoto Protocol Kazakhstan assumed obligations to decrease greenhouse emissions by the year 2020 to 15%. It requires carefully elaborated and efficient way to switch from a commodity economy to a new “green” economy. In particular new innovative technologies are required based on power efficiency, high diversification of production and employment and at the same time having a low-level of environmental pollution. A strategy aimed at reduction of GDP energy intensity to 25% by the year 2020 has been already created; a new Power Efficiency Law has been started. Along with that Kazakhstan initiated The Partnership Program “Green Bridge” aimed at strengthening cooperation in “green” economy field between developing and developed countries. It is not coincidentally that The International Exhibition “EXPO-2017” will be held in Astana under the slogan “Future Energy” in 4 years.
In the course of the exhibition “EXPO Village Green quarter” will be built in Astana valued at 370 mln dollars approximately. “Green Quarter” will represent advanced power efficiency technologies and a modern approach of ecological responsibility. Within “Green Quarter” with at least 20 ha in area an administrative and business center, residential districts, parks and cultural sites are planned. Power efficiency recent developments will be used in every building.
Around 2% of GDP will be invested in “green” economy annually. Generally renewable power source facilities will be started up in 2013-2014 and according to program goal post by the end 2014 the total volume of RPS produced power will reach 1 bln kilowatt-hour.
Five small HPPs and a solar power plant have been started up in Almaty Region. A small HPP with 1.5 megawatt and two wind power plants were assembled in Zhambyl Region. A biogas plant has been commissioned in Kostanay Region. At ENU named after Gumilev a unique project “Solar Roof” which is an educational center at the same time was released last year.
Ministry of Education and Science in cooperation with “Parasat” holding present “Academic and Technological Supply of Power-generating Sector of Economy of Republic of Kazakhstan (renewable power sources, power efficiency) 2011-2014”. Inter alia test output solar-wind, solar-water and solar-heating pump plants, illuminating equipment based on hyper luminous LEDs and others will be created.
NAC “Kazatomprom” provides photoelectric plates and photovoltaic modules production based on Kazakhstan Silicon KAZ PV with 50 megawatt annual output. These are unparalleled solar panels made of Kazakhstan metallurgical silicon using unique plasma stripping and affinage technologies.
For the closest ten years it is planned to produce at least 20% of Kazakhstan energy with the help of alternative sources. To start working in this direction The Agency of Clean Power Development as well as The Fund of Alternative Energy Projects Support are being created.
For future efficient development of “green” energy time and expansion rate of the power accessibility with minimal negative effect for environment should be taken into account. To provide sustainable economic growth of the country it is important to keep an appropriate balance of traditional, renewable and alternative power without sacrificing the sustainability of economy.