It’s time for comprehensive solutions
It’s time for comprehensive solutions
Global task of the modern world is to provide balanced interaction between man and nature. Kazakhstan makes a contribution in this issue as well.
Forty years ago in Stockholm the world agreed with the necessity to take prompt actions for solving the environmental degradation issue, defining such notion as “ecology”. Twenty years later in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro this idea was developed by some correlated aspects – “economy and society”, “sustained development”. The conference RIO+20 which took place in June became a place to answer the global questions: How we want the world to look like in 20 years and what steps should be taken…
The beginning of a new century was marked not only by advanced technological breakthroughs but also by global industrial and environmental problems. Actually, the natural balance has been disturbed, though its stability was created millions years ago. No doubts this is an adequate reaction of the nature to people’s behavior. That’s why the world community vitally needs to decide planet’s destiny nowadays using their advanced political, economic and technological as well as spiritual and moral stimulation techniques.
The purpose of the balanced interaction of men and nature, natural science and arts is vital nowadays. Such symbiosis will let to from the system of industrial innovations and environmental principles putting them forefront of the world community.
Moreover the most significant and urgent global problem is arising lack of energy production and the way it affects the nature.
As UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said: “Energy is the golden thread that connects economic growth, increased social equity, and an environment that allows the world to thrive”. It should also be added that this thread must not become a golden “slipknot” around planet’s neck.
According to International Energy Agency estimates to have mankind energy sufficiency main energy resources have to be renewed at least 2,5 time before 2100 and defined power should be increased in 3 times. To reach this the financial expenses are required which are 1,3% approx of gross world product (GWP). This is minimum. Average, according to experts, will be around 2%. And without reducing energy output ratio GWP the expenses to form main funds by the end of the century will require 2,7% which may stop the social and economic progress by the middle of the century.
Economic recessions, which happen from time to time, proving interconnections and interdependence of all world community parties can also be referred to global threat. Disequilibria between countries keep on increasing. For example, for past 25 years the difference of income level per capita between rich and poor countries has increased from 50 to 80 and power consumption – in 8 times.
Ecological catastrophes have caused the greenhouse gases concentration growth. For past 20 years it increased up to 30% and reached extreme point of global temperature in 2010 which is more than 2 C.
What will happen to mankind in future: global warming or ice age looking like “nuclear” winter? Energy starvation and ecological catastrophe or civil world order, social progress and prosperity?
It’s obvious that in search of the answers the need to create a common scenario of safe energy and environmental development of the planet to switch to a brand new and modern world order has appeared.
Hence Kazakhstan offers its own “Global energy and environmental strategy of sustainable development in XXI century”. The idea belongs to the President of our country Nursultan Nazarbaev. He proclaimed about it presenting at UN conference. Scientific basis of the Strategy being a part of “Global prediction “Future civilizations” 2050” is a team work of scientists and specialists of Kazakhstan Nature Science National Academy, Russian Academy of Natural Science, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Scientific and Technological Holding “Parasat” as well as scientists from USA, Germany and other countries.
The offer defines few main goals and the solution depends on the ability of the world community to cooperate.
The first: to accept the world strategy of renewable energy sources of which potential is enough to use for centuries. But to be able to develop and use them at first some EU countries have to accept the declaration.
In this context synchronization of these energy sources production process with optimization of the established production is required. It’s not a secret that with the current situation of energy production by early century coal, oil and gas resources will be almost expired. But continuing to overdraft them we just exacerbate ecological problems, lack of fresh water and plentiful lands. Doing so the character from “The Air Seller” novel will not be a fiction anymore.
That’s why the world community has a common purpose: to reach a half of energy production volume from the renewable sources by the year 2050.
Therefore it seems relevant to quote the President of USA Barack Obama: “The countries that lead the clean energy economy will be the countries that lead the 21st century global economy”.
The second: to balance out the power consumption in developing and developed countries by the year 2030. In the group of developing countries which will join the global economy leaders soon, gross product energy consumption 1,5-2 excesses the corresponding values of developed countries. Therefore the aspects of zealous attitude to energy consumption and issues of cancellation energy at global and regional level come to the fore. Energy saving and energy efficiency measures implementation expenses can be easily compared to new energy sources construction expenses. And in many cases it’s cheaper to save the energy than to create new sources of energy.
The third: to enhance the role of global financial institutes.
This will aid energy development in a whole and put away the economic harassments on spreading, developing of innovative aspects and realization of smooth transition to efficient energy-environmental future of the planet. At the same time to create a world energy-environment bank would be reasonable, using the experience of famous financial institutes.
The calculations have shown: if the global financial institutes concentrate money at .015% of GWP it will be enough to provide energy-environment development and risk insurance scheme in this sphere which are concerned to possible natural and climatic and manmade ecological disasters.
In absolute terms for the period until 2020 it’s necessary to concentrate funds for value around 800 bln and for the period from 2020 to 2030 – around 2-2.5 trln dollars.
The forth: to create a common international legislation which is oriented to energy-environmental safety of the planet.
The catastrophes in Chernobyl, Gulf of Mexico and Japan showed that not only these countries but also their neighboring ones bore losses. Probably, the necessity to arise responsibility by creating sanctions and indemnities for health detriments of people and environment in case of manmade disaster and emergency situations has appeared.
To solve these goals the developing of energy-environmental law which will be one of the components of the international legislation is required. It will allow to regulate legal relations system between countries as well as to reflect an adequate response of the countries to different kinds of emergency situations. All these define the necessity to work out rigid criterions reflecting international energy-environmental standards.
One of the most important aspects of the strategy is ecological partnership program “Green Bridge” targeted at countries of the Pacific Rim, Asia and Europe development in the context of society sustainability and poverty eradication. The basis of the aspect is development of new transition mechanisms from traditional technology and economy models to “green growth” concept.
At the same time it’s important to pay attention to rehabilitation and developing of world forestry – “lungs” of the planet. In many cases this is also an efficient way to solve the energy production problems. But remember: the nature and all mice and men have the right to exist, and a man’s mission – to protect the richness of the nature. Indeed none of the existing biological species protect other species and set bounds for their own expansion.
A major problem we face currently is protection of typical landscape consisting of predicting its development, saving its ecological balance and rehabilitating it after destructions caused by human activity. Regarding as of paramount importance moral, aesthetic and cultural values of the nature it is necessary to shape a humanistic attitude to flora and fauna regardless of their valuable properties.
It’s commonly known that to define an actual status and perspectives in a world energy industry President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev had offered to host Expo-2017 concerning “The Energy of the Future” in Astana.
To promote the strategy on RIO+20 our country took part in some forums, held meetings with Organization of Islamic Cooperation, preliminary negotiations with European Union (represented by Economic Commission for Europe) and group of 77 (African, Asian and Latin America countries) + China. Russia in its formal address to UN endorsed Nazarbayev’s initiative.
Actually most of world community has sufficient information according to its concepts already.
Ambitious ecological initiative “Green Bridge” was welcomed by more than 90 countries of Asia and Pacific Rim, Europe and North America.
Obviously Kazakhstan does not claim to get an absolute authorship in the strategy development. At the initial stage it is important to accept it conceptually and then to develop sequence of sufficient practical realization by joint efforts of the world community.
One of the most important paradigms of recent times in energy field belongs to Secretary-General of the UN Ban Ki-moon and trying to promote it last year 2012 was proclaimed as “Sustainable Energy for All”. The official presentation of the idea for CIS countries took place during the V Astana Economic Forum “Energy-environmental initiatives of Kazakhstan”.
Before that in the beginning of this year at The Worldwide Energy Summit in Dubai it was officially presented, after that it was revealed to European region in Brussels.
The goals of the program are targeted at solving triune objects: to provide global accessibility to energy and advanced energy plants; to double the intensification of energy treatment; to use renewable sources of energy at least twice of world energy balance consolidated figures.
It should be mentioned that initiative and the strategy coincide and are in line to each other in some points. However a long-term document is a strategy oriented at the current century which provides specific commitments of the countries, including solving the issues in atomic engineering and developing public and private partnership involving international business.
After the events in Japan the proportion of people’s opinion concerning the atomic engineering has shifted to its complete rejection. But mankind realizes a big potential of the “peaceful” atom. That’s why the need to develop a new safety atomic power usage concept has occurred. Summits in Seoul concerning atomic engineering showed the key role of USA, Russia and Kazakhstan in this field.
Hence it seems appropriate to look for contacts and then – partnership for cooperated promotion of the ideas based on common standards and criterions. Complimenting each other they will become the documents of primary importance and opportunities based on international legal rules.
Therefore it makes sense to add the notion “energy engineering and law” in forum documentation as sustainable development priority. Then the following years to the next forum in 2032 the main components of world development dynamics can be presented with the help of this formula: “energy – environment – economy – society – law”.
For different countries with different economic level ongoing conversation, partnership and cooperation which are possible being based on the international legal rules are needed. Thus together with suggested ideas and strategies it is necessary to continue working on creating legal documents of planetary level based on UN Millennium Declaration.
I would like to quote the speech of the greatest scientist of XX century V.I. Vernadsky being said in 1926 but still relevant in our times: “We are reaching a new era in the human life and the life of our planet in whole when scientific idea as planetary power comes on line interfering and changing spiritual mind of the community, when the way of life, domestic creativity, philosophical thought and religious life are embraced and changed by it”.
In this context the time to define the document of global spiritual level based on universal canons and cultures has come. So the conference of the world and traditional religions leaders which are held in Kazakhstan under Nursultan Nazarbayev’s supervision can become a good start to promote the partnership and cooperation on the way of efficient development.
Hence, the global century requires the global strategy based on global ethics.
All of the aforesaid are imperatives of present and future. Thus according to the realties of the modern world the time for global comprehensive solutions has come.
Khusain Valiyev, Member of Senate Parliament,
The member of Sociocultural Development Committee,
Doctor of Engineering Science, Professor